Wine encyclopedia pdf free download
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN —0———7 alk. Wine industry—Encyclopedias. Wine wine encyclopedia pdf free download wine making— Encyclopedias. Brostrom, Jack. Brostrom, Geralyn, — HD B No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or wine encyclopedia pdf free download, without the express written consent of the publisher. Why is the wine industry so interesting? It is a business that is downlaod and has wine encyclopedia pdf free download mystique all its own.
Many people have wine encyclopedia pdf free download personal relationship to the industry —primarily as wine drinkers.
Behind the labels, the wine trade is full of fascinat- ing characters and companies. The global enchclopedia industry differs from other industries in several respects. First, the wine business is encyclopeia vertically integrated than virtually any other. The bottom line is that wineries must master many skills to be successful. Wine also is a lifestyle choice for many producers.
Fortunes made wine encyclopedia pdf free download are often invested in Napa, Bordeaux, or Tuscany. With growers—especially in Europe —reluctant to switch from grapes to other crops as their markets decline, the global surplus of wine can occasionally fref the industry. The global wine industry is quite cyclical, as well. For example, periods of grape shortages will lead to higher prices.
A strategic decision by one grower can—when combined with thousands of similar decisions—spark a cycle. From peak to peak, this grape cycle lasts about 10 years. Diverse ownership structures also distinguish downooad wine industry.
Many of the leading wineries are privately owned, including the E. A few are publicly traded corporations, such as Constellation Brands, Inc. The business has its fair share of innovative trailblazers. They are pioneers wine encyclopedia pdf free download iconic personalities of the industry.
No other industry I can think of has such high variability in price. Consumers may choose wine in one price range, but desire a higher-priced wine in the future. No other pf wine encyclopedia pdf free download in a retail market has so many facings or SKUs stock-keeping unitswhich makes it hard for consumers to make informed choices.
Why an encyclopedia endyclopedia the business of wine? Gallo, Constellation Brands, Inc. The book also covers legal issues, encycloprdia as regulation, direct shipping, and drinking age. This book will educate the general public and practi- tioners, too, about a fascinating and mysterious industry. Downloaad settle encyclopexia with a glass of your favorite wine and enjoy. This encyclopedia focuses on the downloadd business aspects of the wine world, both to give outsiders a glimpse of some of the issues and structure of the industry and to serve as a general reference for people in the wine trade.
It is, to some extent, a peek beneath the surface to see the working parts in operation. Other entries cover more familiar ground, including wine grapes, wine regions, and wine styles. Entries on historical periods of encyclopedoa importance for the development of the trade Ancient Mediterra- nean, Prohibition, religionlegal issues control states, direct shippingand such key people as winemaker Robert Mondavi round out the encyclopedia.
Terms that appear in boldface in the text are cross-references to other entries in this volume. Additional cross-references may appear at the end of the entry. Sidebars and an appendix with wine data are added value. In order to keep the focus on encyyclopedia and business aspects, no attempt has been made to pro- vide complete basic information—this information is readily available in many other books, including those listed in the selected bibliography.
An encyclopedia such as this is inevitably a snapshot in time, and in an industry as dynamic as wine, everything is a moving target. However, it presents a broad picture that will remain useful for years to come. Most of the statistics wine encyclopedia pdf free download from the calendar year or vintage, which is the most recent year for which data are widely available at this writing. In some cases, especially for the Southern Hemisphere, data have been released, and these are included where possible.
For comparison purposes, statistics have been converted into U. Exceptions to this general policy were made for volume measures of wine, since the standard worldwide is the milliliter ml bottle. Small volumes are therefore given in liters or milliliters so they can quickly be compared to number of bottles. Large volumes are given in cases, often millions downliad cases, based on the standard nine-liter case typically, twelve ml bottles or six 1. We have tried to make sense wine encyclopedia pdf free download the statis- tics and use the most accurate sources.
Where national statistics were unavailable encyclopfdia unreliable, we have generally used data from the OIV International Organization of Vine and Wine.
For U. Department of Agriculture, the U. Department of Commerce, Wine encyclopedia pdf free download. We would like to express our sincere appreciation to all the people who con- tributed entries and added their valuable insights to this book.
Those amnesia descent full game download pc not pdd wise attributed are the responsibility of the editors. The history of the wine trade is as long as the history of wine itself, going back as far as eight millennia to the discovery in the Caucasus region of Asia of the pro- cess for controlling grape fermentation and producing an alcoholic beverage. By 5, years ago, wine was well known in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the major civilizations of the Western world.
Wine was a staple of cuisine in the Near East at that time and, consequently, was adopted as wlne of ritual wihe and formal meals by the Jews in Pales- ссылка на страницу, among others.
Amphorae of wine were commonly shipped back and forth between Greek colonies and the homeland, as well as to other Mediter- ranean markets. The Romans then took the downloac baton from the Greeks and ran with it through- out Europe. Wine was hugely popular in the Roman world, requiring the produc- tion of wine on an unheard-of scale to supply the Roman metropolises and the armies and garrisons in faraway wine encyclopedia pdf free download. Southern Italy was the breadbasket нажмите чтобы перейти Rome, and it ppdf the largest source of wine as well.
Because wine did not neces- sarily travel well, however, it was necessary to develop additional supply sources as the empire spread. Near East, the Romans planted vineyards everywhere they could, from Portugal to Eastern Europe, as well as throughout Italy and much of France, which both узнать больше здесь perfectly suited to the production of the best wine yet made.
The popularity of wine survived the decline, division, and eventual disappear- ance of the Roman Empire. To some extent, this was because of посмотреть больше need for downlooad in the Christian Mass, and therefore the wine knowledge often resided most strongly in the religious communities of the day; wine, however, was also imbibed extensively wjne a thoroughly secular beverage, and most production, even from ecclesiastical vineyards, супер, world championship snooker 2003 free download for pc здесь consumed outside the church.
Wine merchants were already well established, carrying wine from the source to eager consumers, especially in the cities, where water was generally scarce or unsanitary and wine therefore a much more healthful beverage. Over the course of more than 1, years, cownload crossings wine encyclopedia pdf free download mutations resulted enxyclopedia myriad varieties of wine grapes that wine encyclopedia pdf free download unlike anything that had existed in Roman times or encyclo;edia.
This system still drives price wine encyclopedia pdf free download in such places as Burgundy and Piedmont and is responsible for the dear prices of wines from the best sites.
After the Norman conquest of England, members of the new English ftee found themselves in a land that was generally inhospitable for vineyards and therefore nurtured a vibrant cross-Channel gree trade with France, particularly the Bordeaux region that was under English domination for centuries.
As the feudal system broke down and barter was replaced by money, the wine trade began to resemble encycloedia organization of producers, shippers, and merchants that it has today. With the discovery of the Americas and the rush to found colonies in distant lands, wine was introduced to the New World.
These plantings did not turn into the commercial enterprises that the medieval monasteries did, but in wine encyclopedia pdf free download cases they pvf act as nurseries узнать больше secular vineyards that came later. In most of the col- onies, growing grapes either proved nearly impossible or was forbidden by authorities who stood to lose out on a monopoly on supplying alcohol if they allowed colonists to develop an indigenous industry.
California, Chile, and Argentina moved beyond their missionary encylcopedia industry encyckopedia to develop large commercial wine encyclopedia pdf free download. Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand, too, found areas wine encyclopedia pdf free download far from some of wine encyclopedia pdf free download larger cities where grapes would grow well.
All downliad areas began to produce wines that, even if they did not yet rival those of France, were at least of decent quality and were much cheaper and more readily available than French or other European wines. One New World area that was not successful in wine production was the eastern United States, where, вас download aplikasi cymera untuk pc когда other lesser problems, the root louse phyl- loxera made the cultivation of European grape varieties impossible.
The phyllox- era problem went unrecognized until after the insect had inadvertently been exported to most of the rest of the wine-producing world on sample cuttings of native American grapevines. По ссылке ravaged the defenseless vinifera vines fref everywhere in the late nineteenth century, causing massive upheaval in the wine industry. Eventually, it was discovered that grafting vinifera cuttings onto native Ameri- can rootstocks would keep the phylloxera plague in check, but by encyclopediw time the solution had been effected, much had encyclopfdia.
For one thing, almost every grape- vine in the world had to be uprooted and replaced with grafted vines. In the pro- cess, lesser varieties and vineyards were abandoned, resulting in a higher-quality but somewhat less diverse viticultural world that has to a large extent carried through to today. Another effect of phylloxera was that, with the European, espe- cially French, wine industry temporarily sidelined by phylloxera damage and replanting, New World regions were for a time able to take the spotlight and dem- onstrate their potential until they, too, were struck by phylloxera.
Wine encyclopedia pdf free download in Europe, the French hiatus sent French winemakers to other countries in search of work, raising по ссылке bar of quality in many regions.
That opened wine encyclopedia pdf free download door for not only California wines but also those of Washington, Oregon, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and others to take their places on на этой странице shelves and wine cellars everywhere. Today, wine is wine encyclopedia pdf free download longer a dietary staple as it once was. Rather, it is a beverage of choice.
In most countries, it competes with not only beer and spirits but also a wide range of soft drinks and safe-to-drink water—not to mention bottled waters that in some cases cost almost as much as wine.
Wine competes with other drinks on the strength of its taste and quality, as well as on its reputation as the most civilized of beverages, and it appears to be holding its own against the competition. Thus, the United States represents a dichotomy of both a mature market that has the encyclopediia to consume more and a new market full of people who might be interested in freee if they knew more about it.
In both instances, quality and the quality—price ratio will determine success for the wine industry in general and for individual countries or producers that are after the American consumer. This encyclopedia presents useful information on the wine industry to provide readers with a behind-the-scenes look at the commercial wine world. In fact, a point that is well known to people who make a living in the wine industry, but is typically lost on the general public and often on those who have just entered this line of work, is that the wine business is actually a business.
Many pdff out- wine encyclopedia pdf free download the trade think that working in the wine business must be pcf long party, sort of like being in the movies or working on a cruise ship. The wine industry is a complex network of interrelated businesses that collec- tively serve to produce wine and get it into the hands of downloadd.
Wine encyclopedia pdf free download. The Wine Encyclopedia
However, the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church and others. Despite some exports from Bordeaux, until about most wine in France was consumed locally.
The spread of railroads and the improvement of roads reduced the cost of transportation and dramatically increased exports. Quality levels and appellation system A number of laws to control the quality of French wine were passed in Consequently, France has one of the oldest appellation systems for wine in the world, and strictest laws concerning winemaking and production.
Many other European systems are modelled on it. With European Union wine laws being modelled on those of the French, this trend is likely to continue with further EU expansion. Wine styles and grape varieties All common styles of wine – red, ros, white dry, semi-sweet and sweet , sparkling and fortified – are produced in France.
In most of these styles, the French production ranges from cheap and simple versions to some of the world’s internationally most famous and expensive examples. The possible exception is French fortified wine, which tend to be relatively unknown outside France’s border. A very large number of grape varieties are cultivated in France, including both internationally well-known and obscure, little noted local varieties.
In fact, most of the so-called “international varieties” are of French origin, or became known and spread because of their cultivation in France. Since French appellation rules generally restrict wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of France. Most varieties are therefore associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhne, although there are varieties that are commonly found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne including Chablis and Champagne, and Sauvignon Blanc in Loire and Bordeaux.
As an example of the rules, although climatic conditions would seem to allow good examples to be. If such wines were produced they would have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table wine, and would not be allowed to display any appellation name or even region of origin. Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties rather than varietally pure. Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than varietal red wines.
In many respects, French wines have more of a regional than a national identity, as evidenced by different grape varieties, production methods and different classification systems in the various regions.
Quality levels and prices varies enormously, and some wines are made for immediate consumption while other are meant for long-time cellaring. If there is one thing that most French wines have in common, then it is that most styles have developed as wines meant to accompany food, be it a quick baguette, a simple bistro meal or a full-fledged multi-course menu.
More seldomly have the wines been developed or styled as “bar wines” for drinking on their own, or to impress in tastings already when young. The labels on a bottle of French wine often carry important information that can help the consumer evaluate its potential quality. Following are some potentially important phrases: “Mis en bouteille au Bottles from independent makers carry a special logo that is usually printed on the foil cap covering the cork.
In previous times, France had no tradition of varietal labelling of wines, with the exception of wines from the Alsace region, with their Germanic influence. This was not just because wines were made blended, not even traditionally varietally pure wines such as Chardonnay-based Chablis or Chenin Blanc-based Vouvray displayed varietial names on the label. Varietal labelling was not even allowed under appellation rules. After New World wines made the varietal names “household names” on the export market in the later part of the 20th century, more French wines have started to use varietal labelling.
In general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category. Some AOC wines in “simpler” categories are also allowed to display varietal names, but these wines are rather few. For most AOC wines, if varietal names are found, it will be in small print on a back label. If two or more varietal names are used, only the displayed varieties are allowed. If two or more varietal names are used, they must in general appear in decreasing order.
A Cahors chateau and vineyard Terroir refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard. These factors include such things as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc.
No two vineyards, not even in the same area, have exactly the same terroir. Alsace, a primarily white wine region in eastern France. Alsace is situated on river Rhine and on the border with Germany, a country with which it shares many grape varieties as well as a long tradition of varietal labelling. Bordeaux, a large region on the Atlantic coast, which has a long history of exporting its wines oversea. Primarily a red wine region, the wine style of which is perhaps the world’s most imitated.
The better Bordeaux wines are powerful, tannic and very long-lived, and include some of the most collected and traded fine wines of the world. Bordeaux also makes dry and sweet white wines and is the home to some of the world’s most famous sweet wines, from the Sauternes appellation.
Burgundy or Bourgogne in eastern France is a region where red and white wines are equally important. Probably more terroir-conscious than any other region, Burgundy is divided into the largest number of appellations of any French region.
Better Burgundies, both red and white, are often described as elegant wines, and the top wines from Burgundy’s heartland in Cte d’Or command some of the highest prices of any wines in the world. Two parts of Burgundy that are sometimes considered as separate regions are: Beaujolais in the south, close to the Rhne valley region, where almost only red wines are made, in a fruity style that is usually consumed young.
Chablis halfway between Cte d’Or and Paris, where white wines are produced on chalky soil giving a more crisp and steely style than the rest of Burgundy. Champagne in eastern France, close to Belgium and Luxembourg, is the coldest of France’s major wine regions and home to the world’s most famous sparkling wine.
Corsica, an island in the Mediterranean, the wines of which are primarily consumed on the island itself. Jura, a small region in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles are produced. Languedoc-Roussillon, by far the largest region in terms of vineyard surface, and the region in which much of France’s cheap bulk wines have been produced. While still the source of much of France’s and Europe’s overproduction, the so-called wine lake, Languedoc-Roussillon is also the home of some of France’s most innovative producers, which usually try to combine traditional French wine and international styles and don’t hesitate to take lessons from the New World.
Loire valley, primarily a white wine region which stretches over a large distance along the Loire river in central and western France, and were grape varieties and wine styles vary along the river. Provence, in the southeast and close to the Mediterranean. Famous for ros wines but also produces much red wine.
Rhone valley, primarily a red wine region in southeastern France, along the Rhne river. The styles and varietal composition of northern and southern Rhne differ, but both parts compete with Bordeaux for the image as a traditional producer of powerful red wines.
Savoy or Savoie, primarily a white wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where many grapes unique to this region are cultivated. South West France or Sud-Ouest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection of wine areas inland or south of Bordeaux.
Some areas produce primarily red wines in a style reminiscient of red Bordeaux, while other produce dry or sweet white wines. Bearn, such as Juranon Basque Country areas, such as Iroulguy. There are also several smaller production areas situated outside these major regions.
Many of those are VDQS wines, and some, particularly those in more northern locations, are remnants of productions areas which were once larger. Trends France has traditionally been the largest consumer of its own wines. However, wine consumption has been dropping in France for 40 years. During the decade of the s, per capita consumption dropped by nearly 20 percent. Therefore, French wine producers must rely increasingly on foreign markets.
However, consumption has also been dropping in other potential markets such as Italy, Spain and Portugal. The result has been a continuing wine glut, often called the wine lake, that has led to the distillation of wine into industrial alcohol as well as a government program to pay farmers to pull up their grape vines through vine pull schemes.
A large part of this glut is caused by the re-emergence of Languedoc wine. Immune from these problems has been the market for Champagne as well as the market for the expensive ranked or classified wines.
However, these constitute only about five percent of French production. French regulations in created simple rules for the then-new category of Vin de pays. The Languedoc-Roussillon region has taken advantage of its ability to market varietal wines. Georgia is the oldest wine producing region of Europe, if not the world.
Because of this, it is often referred to as “The birth place of wine” or “The cradle of wine making”. The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Georgia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world’s first cultivated grapevines and neolithic wine production, over years ago.
Many also believe that the etymology of the word wine comes from the Georgian word for wine – gvino. Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history, the traditions of its viticulture are entwined and inseparable with the country’s national identity. It has been archaeologically proven that the roots of Georgian viticulture are between and BC, when peoples of South Caucasus discovered that wild grape juice turned into wine when it was left buried through the winter in a shallow pit.
This knowledge was nourished by experience, and from BC Georgians were cultivating grapes and burying clay vessels, kvevri, in which to store their wine ready for serving at perfect ground temperature. When filled with the fermented juice of the harvest, the kvevris are topped with a wooden lid and then covered and sealed with earth. Some may remain entombed for up to 50 years. This love affair with the grape was given further encouragement by the arrival of Saint Nino in the 4th century.
Fleeing Roman persecution in Cappadocia, in what is now central Turkey, and bearing a cross made from vine wood and bound with her own hair. Saint Nino was swept up in the warm embrace of the Georgians, who became early converts to Christianity in AD, or in AD as recent research suggests. Thus the cross and the vine became inextricably linked in the Georgian psyche, and the advent of the new faith served to sanction these ancient vinous practices.
For centuries, Georgians drank, and in some areas still drink, their delicious wine from horns called kantsi in Georgian and skins specially treated for this purpose. These drinking implements came from their herd animals, as no part of the valued and respected beasts went to waste. The horns were cleaned, boiled and polished, creating a unique, durable and quite stylish drinking vessel.
These horns were prized by the merchants and warriors that travelled the fertile valleys of the Caucasus. Today they are still a prized symbol of the historic eras. Wine vessels of every shape, size and design account for the bulk of earthenware artifacts unearthed by Georgian archaeologists. The Georgian craft of pottery is millennia old.
Ancient artifacts attest to the high skill of Georgian craftsmen in whose hands water, clay and fire turned into an object of an exceptional beauty much admired by people.
The most impressive of all archaeological finds are kvevri, giant clay vessels in which wine was fermented and stored up. The old ones used to dig them into soil, just as we are doing now.
Georgian museums have on display numerous clay vessels of all designations. Some were used to ferment grape juice and to store up wine, such as kvevri, chapi and satskhao, and others were used for drinking, such as khelada, doki, sura, chinchila, dedakhelada, dzhami and marani. For ages, artisans polished their skills to improve these vessels. The secrets of trade passed on from fathers to sons. Modern potters carefully study the ancient craft and decorative patterns and create their own pottery making extensive use of ancient national traditions and using the latest scientific and technological achievements to enrich ancient traditions.
Many of the unearthed silver, gold and bronze artifacts of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC bare chased imprints of the vine, grape clusters and leaves. The State Museum of Georgia has on display a cup of high-carat gold set with gems, an ornamented silver pitcher and some other artifacts dated the 2nd millennium BC The museum of history has a cameo depicting Bacchus.
Numerous sarcophagi with wine pitchers and ornamented wine cups, found in ancient tombs, are a proof that wine was nothing unusual for Georgians at all times. On the basis of this evidence it is safe to say that viticulture is a preeminent theme in the long record of Georgian history. Viticulture in Georgia today Georgia ranks 4th in grape production in the former Soviet Union behind Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova, though Georgian wines have always been the most highly prized and sought after.
Unfortunately due to this, Georgian wines have recently begun to be widely imitated and counterfeited, exacerbated by the lax quality control and regulation standards of the nations within the CIS. This seems to be one of the main reasons that Georgian wines along with Moldovan wines were baned from Russia in March However, there also seems to be a heavy political dimension to the ban as well.
Moscow markets have Georgian wines with names like Kindzmarauli produced in cities throughout Russia. Regrettably falsification occurs within Georgia as well, but has severally been clamped down upon by the Georgian government recently in order to mitigate the Russian ban claims, and to restore its prestige while expanding export opportunities to Western markets.
The wine embargo has forced the Georgian government to officially recognize Georgia’s role in falsification and many wineries have been closed. Despite these efforts, falsification remains a problem and buyers should confirm they are purchasing from an established, and reputable company.
Reportedly recent exports to Germany were sent back to Georgia after they tested positive for falsification at German Customs. However the authentic Georgian wine is winning praise, and it was announced as of June 18, that a three-year SIPPO – Swiss Import Promotion Program – aimed at helping small and medium sized enterprises in emerging and transition markets, gain access to Swiss and EU markets , will promote Georgian wines in Europe.
The three-year SIPPO program targets the promotion of Georgian wine in Europe and plans to develop the Georgian wine industry so that it will match European standards of marketing, winemaking, bottling, and branding. SIPPO also promises to promote Georgian wineries at fairs and exhibitions held across Europe, and to seek potential European partners after exhibitions.
Trainings, seminars and workshops in marketing and branding are planned to be carried out during the six month preparatory period in the framework of the SIPPO program, and wine promotion at European exhibitions is scheduled for the spring of A group of SIPPO experts went on a three-day monitoring visit to wine factories in the Georgian regions of Kakheti considered to be the cradle of Georgian wine in east Georgia and Racha a highland region in west Georgia renowned for the Usakhelauri and Khvanchkara wine that is made there.
The group looked through all wineries, checked their technology and equipment standards, tested all possible sorts of Georgian wines and came to the conclusion that Georgian wine is quite ready to be exported to Europe. Otto Geiges, of Geiges Consulting a food quality management consulting company , was surprised at the high quality of Georgian wines.
He also found that most Georgian wineries were perfectly equipped and adjusted to Western standards. He predicts that Georgia has a good chance of making it in the Western market and says that, in order to succeed, Georgia must first learn the tastes of the Western market; begin using only the best of their grapes; and to keep away from the old type of low quality sweet wine they used to sell in large quantities to Russia.
These sorts of wines have little chance at Western market, he told Georgian media. However he also stated I didnt expect such high quality, we tested over 60 wines and many of them will have a good chance in Switzerland and other western markets. He personally liked Mtsvane and Saperavi, and appears quite confident that the European market and particularly Switzerland is ready to accept Georgian wines.
He personally liked Tetra but thinks that Saperavi is the most interesting variety due to the particular microsomes it contains. Microsomes are the very things that wine-lovers in Switzerland are starting to demand, he explained to Georgian media. Growing conditions When it comes to wine-making, Georgia is blessed. Extremes of weather are unusual: summers tend to be short-sleeve sunny, and winters mild and frost-free. Natural springs abound, and the Caucasian Mountain streams drain mineral-rich water into the valleys.
Georgia’s moderate climate and moist air, influenced by the Black Sea, provide the best conditions for vine cultivating. Grape varieties in Georgia Traditional Georgian grape varieties are little known in the West. Now that the wines of Eastern and Central Europe are coming to international awareness, grapes from this region are becoming better known.
Although there are nearly to choose from, only 38 varieties are officially grown for commercial viticulture in Georgia: Rkatsiteli white is a variety that is so widely grown in Eastern and Central Europe that it ranks third in the world in hectares grown. It is the most important grape varietiy used to make Georgian white wines. It is high in acidity and is capable of producing wines with fine character. Saperavi red produces substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging, perhaps up to fifty years.
Saperavi has the potential to produce high alcohol levels and is used extensively for blending with other lesser varieties. It is the most important grape variety used to make Georgian red wines. Mtsvani or Mtsvane white is also important in Georgian wines, and is often blended with Rkatsiteli to which it adds a fruity, aromatic balance. In the Georgian language Mtsvane means green. Mujuretuli red Ojaleshi red is cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district Western Georgia.
Usakhelauri red is cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. Dzvelshava Krakhuna Georgian wine varieties Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy.
As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. Georgian wines are classified as sweet, semi-sweet, semi-dry, dry, fortified and sparkling. The semi-sweet varieties are the most popular. It has won 3 gold medals and one silver medal at international competitions.
Tsinandali is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region. Tvishi is a natural semi-sweet white wine made from Tsolikauri in the Lechkhumi region. It has won one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal in international competitions. Mtsvani is a dry white wine made from Mtsvani. Alaznis Veli is white semi-sweet wine made from the Rkatsiteii, Tetra, Tsolikauri and other industrial grape varieties cultivated in Western and Eastern Georgia.
The wine of straw color has a characteristic aroma, a fine, fresh and a harmonious taste. Anakopia is a white semi-dry table wine made from the Tsolikauri grape variety grown in the Sukhumi and Gudauta districts in Abkhazia. The color range is from light to darkstraw. It has a specific aroma and a subtle fresh taste.
The wine has been produced since Tbilisuri is pink semi-dry wine produced since The wine has a rich fruity taste. The alcohol content is Khikkhvi is a vintage white dessert wine made from the Khikhvi grape variety grown in Kardanakhi. It has pleasant amber color, a characteristic aroma and a delicate taste. Its strength is 15 vol. At international competitions it received 4 gold medals.
Saamo is a vintage dessert white sweet wine is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurjaani district in Kakheti. It takes the wine three years to mature. The golden-color wine has an original fine bouquet, a pleasant taste with a harmonious honey fragrance. It has been manufactured since At international exhibitions Saamo was awarded 4 gold and 1 silver medal. Gelati is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Tsolikauri, Tsitska and Krakhuna grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia.
The wine of straw color has a characteristic savor with a fruity flavor and fresh harmonious taste. Its strength is Kakheti is a white table wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has a fruity aroma with a vanillic flavor. It is characterized by an energetic, velvety and harmonious taste. At international wine competitions the Kakheti wine was awarded one silver and one bronze medal.
It has been produced since Bodbe is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety in the village of Bodbe in the Magaro microdistrict, one of the most beautiful places of Kakheti.
The wine has a light-straw color, a fine aroma of wild flowers and a pleasing tender taste which give the wine piquancy highly estimated by connoisseurs. The ready wine contains Dimi is an Imeretian-type white ordinary wine. It is made from the Tsolikauri and Krakhuna grape varieties grown on small areas in Imereti Western Georgia by the old local technique consisting in fermenting the grapes pulp to which some quantity of grapes husks is added.
The dark-straw color has a pleasant specific bouquet with a fruity flavor, a fresh harmonious taste and savory astringency. Gareji is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti.
The wine has a color ranging from pale-straw to amber, a pleasing bouquet and a full harmonious taste. Ereti is a white dry ordinary wine made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties. It has a straw color, a fine fruity bouquet and a full fresh and harmonious taste.
Shuamta is a dry wine produced since It is made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties according to the Kakhetian recipe. The wine is of amber or dark-amber color and has a moderately astringent harmonious taste with a fruity aroma. The name comes from one of the major river systems of Georgia that borders Georgia with Azerbaijan. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elsewhere.
It has won one silver and one gold metal in international competitions. Red Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti. The wine of. It contains The wine has been manufactured since At international exhibitions it was awarded 6 gold and 5 silver medals. The wine has a strong specific bouquet and a harmonious velvety taste with a raspberry flavor.
It is of dark-ruby color. The Khvanchkara wine is one of the most popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. Kindzmarauli is a high quality naturally semi-sweet wine of dark-red color. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated on the slopes of the Caucasian mountains in the Kvareli district of Kakheti. It has a strong characteristic bouquet and aroma, a gentle harmonious and velvety taste. The wonderful taste and curative properties have won Kindzmarauli general recognition.
The wine contains The wine is sourced from the very best wines of the vintage that have been fermented at controlled temperatures and with selected yeast strains.
The wines are then matured for 3 years in oak to give the wine-added complexity and flavor. Mukuzani is considered to be the best of the Georgian Dry Red wines made from Saperavi.
It has won 9 gold medals, 2 silver medals and 3 bronze medals in international competitions. Napareuli Ojaleshi is one of the best red semi-sweet wines made from the grape variety of the same name cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district Western Georgia.
Odzhaleshi has dark-ruby colour, a gentle bouquet and aroma, a harmonious rich taste with a fruity flavor. Pirosmani is a naturally semi-sweet red wine. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated in the Akhoebi vineyards of the Kardanakhi village in the Alazani Valley. The wine is fermented in clay jars buried in the ground, an ancient Kakhetian technology of wine-making.
When ready for use, the wine contains Saperavi is a red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in some areas of Kakheti. It is an extractive wine with a characteristic bouquet, a harmonious taste and pleasant astringency. At the international wine competitions this wine received one gold and one silver medal. Usakhelauri is a naturally semi-sweet wine, which is superior to all other wines of this kind for its gentle and subtle qualities.
It is produced from the excellent Usakhelauri grape variety cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. Vineyards are arranged on the mountain slopes. The wine has attractive ruby color,. It is noted for a pleasant velvety taste, a delicate bouquet and inimitable piquancy. The wine contains up to The word “Usakhelauri” means “nameless” in Georgia.
The wine was so fine that it was hard to find an adequate name for it. At international exhibitions Usakhelauri was awarded 2 gold and 3 silver medals. Apsny is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made of red grape varieties cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine of pomegranate color has a pleasant aroma, a full and harmonious taste with gentle sweetness.
At an international exhibition the wine received one silver medal. Lykhny is a naturally semi-sweet pink wine made of the Izabela grape variety cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine has pink color, a specific aroma and a fresh harmonious taste. At international exhibitions Lykhny was awarded one silver and one bronze medal. Mtatsminda is a pink table semi-dry wine produced since It is prepared by the original technology from the Saperavi, Tavkveri, Asuretuli, Rkatsiteli and other grape varieties grown in Tetritskaro, Kaspi, Gori and Khashuri districts.
The wine is characterized by a harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful color. Aguna is a pink semi-dry wine produced since Sachino is a pink semi-dry wine produced since It is made by the original method from the Aleksandreuli, Aladasturi, Odzhaleshi, Tsitska, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in West Georgia. The wine is notable for a mild taste, a moderate extractibility, a pure aroma and a beautiful color.
Barakoni is a naturally semi-dry red wine made from the unique Alexandreuli and Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia on the steep slopes of the Rioni gorge in the Caucasian mountains.
This top quality wine of light-ruby color has a fine fragrance of violets, natural pleasant sweetness and a tender harmonious taste. Salkhino is a liqueur-type of dessert wine made from the Izabella grape variety with an addition of the Dzvelshava, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in the Mayakovski district Western Georgia.
It has characteristic ruby or pomegranate color. At international competitions the wine received 6 gold medals. It has won 3 mold medals and 3 silver medals at international competitions. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elseware. Rkatsiteli Mtsvani Saperavi Dzelshavi Fortified Kardanakhi is a fortified vintage white wine of the type.
It is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district. The wine matures in oak barrels for three years. The amber color wine has a pleasant specific bouquet with a typical port wine flavor and a fine honey fragrance. It was awarded 8 gold and one silver international medals. Anaga is a madeira-type top-quality strong wine made from the Rkatsiteli, Khikhvi and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in the Gurjaani, Sighnaghi and Tsitel-Tskaro districts.
The wine has light-golden to dark-amber color, a strong peculiar bouquet, an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced Madeira touch. The Anaga wine was awarded 1 international silver medal. Sighnaghi is an ordinary strong wine of the port type made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in the Sighnaghi district in Kakheti.
The amber-color wine has an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced fruity touch. Veria is a fortified vintage white port made from the Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Chinuri and other commercial grape varieties grown in Eastern Georgia. The amber-color wine has a peculiar aroma and harmonious taste.
Its strength is 18 vol. At an international wine competition it received 1 gold medal. Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaphoni, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. Marabda is is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in Marneuli and Bolnisi districts.
Kolkheti is a fortified vintage white port is made from Tsolikauri, Tsitska and other commercial white grape varieties grown in Western Georgia. The amber-color wine has a specific bouquet and harmonious taste. At an international competition the wine received one silver medal. Taribana is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape veriety cultivated in Kakheti.
The wine has a mild oily taste, a low sugar content and a beautiful color. Wine styles Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaponi, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts.
Internationally, there were phylloxera outbreaks in California and less-than-stellar vintages in Europe. When Australia started to come on, it came on strong. Suddenly, Australia appeared to be leading the way in wine research, breaking records for growth, and focusing on world domination. For decades now, Australia has been known as an industry leader in viticulture, winemaking, and wine marketing.
The Early Years. When Capt. These cuttings came from South Africa thus the Australian use of Shiraz rather than Syrah for this variety.
Gregory Blaxton arrived in Australia in from England. Around the same time, James Busby, who had studied viticulture in France, published a guide to winemaking in New South Wales. He then embarked on a European tour from which he returned in with French and Spanish vine cuttings. It was not long after that that wine grapes were planted across Australia.
There were hardships along the way— depression and phylloxera in the late s, but thankfully no Prohibition. Today, Australia can boast some of the oldest vines in the world. After World War II, a wave of immigration brought many newcomers from wine-producing countries—Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece—along with their wine-drinking habits and viticultural know-how.
With grapes of all kinds being grown in adjacent vineyards—even side by side in the same vineyard—winemakers would blend to their own tastes. The practice of blending varieties that never mixed in their home countries or juice from different regions became the new tradition. Geographic Indications. No viticultural or winemaking guidelines are imposed. Australia is a big country—about 14 times the size of France and only 4 percent smaller than the United States.
Scattered mostly along the coasts in the southeast and the southwest, the 64 different wine regions have very diverse climates, elevations, and soil types. Five of the best known follow:. Quite cool, with many hills and valleys, the Yarra is known for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Growers rely on evening breezes to keep the temperatures down. Surrounded on three sides by the seas, it is truly maritime in climate.
Also, wines can be labeled for a state and include juice from any region in the state. Importance of Exports. Although Australia is ranked sixth in the world for total wine production—amounting to million nine-liter cases mc in —it is ranked higher, at the fourth position, for its export success. However, the United States is a close second As recently as , when Australia had an oversupply of fruit, Australia shipped a lot of bulk wine to the United States.
Bulk red wine shipments are down 63 percent and whites decreased by 52 percent. In addition to the U. The Marketing Mix: Cooperation and Collaboration.
In , an industry review changed the name of the AWBs worldwide to Wine Australia and modernized the logo. Heads of wine corporations and boutique winemakers come together regularly at conferences and colloquiums. Since , three major ini- tiatives have been published by the industry: Strategy outlined sales goals, which were surpassed by In Country. As noted, exports have long been a part of the Australian wine industry, but in the past several years, imports have become more important as well.
In , imports totaled almost 5 mc. New Zealand, the other imports have more than doubled since , with the largest volumes coming from Italy, France, Chile, and Spain. Future Focus. Jan Stuebing Smyth. Clarke, Oz. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Grapegrower and Winemaker. Halliday, James. Wine Atlas of Australia. Berkeley: University of California Press, Mattinson, Campbell. Wine Australia. Then in , just as the industry was recovering, a wine adulter- ation scandal shattered the rebuilding of the image.
Austrian wines disappeared for years from many export markets. Since then, a little miracle has happened. A strict new wine law supported dra- matic quality improvements, and a new generation of quality-oriented wine- makers was able to sell wine at prices that paid back their efforts. Austria has always had excellent terroirs, especially for great white and sweet wines. But with just , acres under vine, less than 1 percent of the global wine production, and more than 75 percent local consumption, Austria has not been perceived as a leading wine producer.
Nevertheless, in the last 20 years, Austria has achieved international acclaim for quality. Austrian wine law allows 22 white and 13 red grape varieties for quality wine. Sauvignon Blanc is a focus in the southernmost quality wine area, Steiermark Styria. The fourth wine area is Vienna, the federal capital, which has more than 1, acres under vine. Eiswein made from naturally frozen grapes and Strohwein or Schilfwein made from sun-dried grapes com- plete the spectrum.
In an average year, Austria produces around 2. More than three-quarters is sold domestically: 58 percent in restaurants, 38 percent at retail supermarkets, wine shops, and direct sales , and 4 percent to tourists.
It exports the equivalent of 5. The most important export market has always been Germany 65 percent by volume and 56 percent by value in The Czech Republic and Italy are traditional bulk wine buyers. Family ownership is the driving force, and the young generation is dynamic, motivated, and innovative.
Austrian estates work with great respect for nature. Organic wine production has recently doubled to 8 percent of total production. With its low yields, controlled use of treatments, and small family estates where most of the crop is handpicked, Austria is one of the most environmentally friendly wine economies in the world. Its goal is to keep local consumption as high as it is, while shifting more and more exported wine from bulk business to reasonable sales of bottled quality wines.
It is now looking to increase exports to a— a million over the next 5 years. Blom, Phillip. The Wines of Austria. It is currently the seventh largest wine company and the second largest importer in the United States, with a volume of 6. Mariani and Cristina Mariani-May are the grandchildren of the founder. The use of barrels is almost essential for wines intended to age rather than to be drunk young, but barrels add considerable expense and are part of the reason such wines cost as much as they do.
History of Barrels. In the early days of winemaking, barrels were used in many places mainly because they were one of the easiest and cheapest ways to store wine. Initially, the wood used to make the barrels was whatever was abundant in the regions where the wines were produced—chestnut, oak, cherry, and so on.
Barrels were made in many different sizes and shapes. The micro-oxygenation of the wine through the wood made the tannins softer and the color more stable. Others, such as chestnut, were a little bitter and not as elegant, so oak became the standard material for barrels. With further experimentation, it was found that not all oaks were the same.
The characteristics imparted to the wine depended on the type of oak among the different species and subspecies of American, French, Slovenian, and other oaks , the age of the tree, and the forest where it was grown—which affected the grain tight or loose and, consequently, the degree of micro-oxygenation— and the length of seasoning of the wood after cutting.
Barrel makers, known as coopers, are found in all the main wine- producing countries. However, the major companies are French, because the huge oak forests of the Massif Central in the middle of France are generally consid- ered to be the best source of wood for wine barrels.
Some of these companies have set up cooperages in other countries; Demptos and Seguin Moreau both have facilities in the Napa Valley making barrels with French and other types of oak. The barrel size and shape are selectable as well, although the classic Bordeaux-style barrel of liters and the somewhat shorter and wider Burgundy-style barrel of liters are by far the most popular. It produces more than a million barrels a year, although most are for the whiskey industry.
Almost 2 million barrels a year are sold in the United States alone. Cost of Barrels. Depending on the source and the characteristics of the barrel itself, new barrels vary in price from a few hundred dollars to more than a thou- sand.
French barrels made in France are the most expensive, due to the high demand for them, as well as the poor exchange rate with the U. For this reason, only high-end wines are likely to be aged in a substantial amount of new French oak. Oak Alternatives.
About 20 years ago in some of the New World countries, wineries started experimenting with alternatives to oak barrels as a technique to give wines some of the advantages of the barrel-aging at a much lower cost that would be affordable for medium- and even low-priced wines.
These products include oak staves that are suspended inside stainless-steel tanks and oak chips available in many shapes and sizes that are added to wines in tanks. Winemakers who widely use these techniques say that there is no difference between putting the wine into oak or the oak into wine. In addition, there is very little handling required compared with the use of barrels, which provides further savings.
Those concerned with the environ- ment are more accepting of oak alternatives. Since coopers can use only about 25 to 30 percent of a tree for barrels, waste-conscious producers and consumers alike are happy to hear that the rest of the tree can be used for oak alternatives. In addition to staves and chips, such products as oak extract, tannin powder, and oak shavings are now available.
The use of these products has expanded the oak supplier segment of the industry. Many long-time international cooperage houses, such as Seguin Moreau, Radoux, Nadalie, and Canton, sell these alterna- tives alongside their barrels. Entirely new companies have been created that sell only these products, such as Innerstave located in Sonoma County, California.
Others such as StaVin, located in Sausalito, California, focus on oak alternatives, but offer barrels as well. Oak alternatives are not designed to replace the use of barrels and never will be. The result of a barrel-aged wine is not the same as that from an alternative oak treatment. Barrels give the wines more elegance, complexity, and balance, and the impact of the oak on the wine is not as strong and invasive as with the alternatives. Furthermore, barrels, of different sizes and shapes, are part of the tradition and charm of many premium wines and wineries in both the New and Old Worlds—something that oak staves and chips cannot provide.
Nevertheless, alternative oak treatments can improve the wine quality in many good, medium-priced wines that cannot support the cost of expensive barrel-aging.
Further Reading Caputo, Tina. Fleming, Chris. Work, Henry. Biodynamic farmers believe in organic principles and see the land as a complete ecosystem, but take measures a step further by introducing a spiritual aspect to their activities. They look after the health of their farms using methods similar to homeopathic remedies, striving to improve the overall health and fertility of the land they farm by applying natural preparations made from such substances as medicinal herbs, minerals, and cow dung to restore and enhance the ecosystem in which they operate.
The biodynamic concept that has attracted most of the attention to this group, however, is their belief that farming activities should be aligned with the phases of the cosmos and that there are planetary effects on agricultural crops. Subscribing winemakers believe that only under biodynamic conditions does the true terroir of a site show itself. It is more widely held that the healthier farming techniques lead ultimately to higher-quality and possibly better-tasting wines.
Further Reading Joly, Nicolas. San Francisco: Wine Appreciation Guild, Biodynamic Wines. Even though this system is hun- dreds of years old and much about Bordeaux has changed during this time, each of these actors still remains essential, and the absence of any one of them would seriously degrade the smooth operation of business. New World wine regions have one great advantage over Bordeaux: their vine- yards have been planted purposefully in areas where the existing climate will guarantee ripe grapes.
By contrast, Old World vineyards were situated to satisfy the needs of a thirsty local population, regardless of the prevailing weather. This is largely because these areas can grow great quantities of consistently ripe grapes to produce satis- fying wines at a lower cost than is possible in Bordeaux. Simply put, wine drink- ers seeking a decent bottle of basic red wine used to look to Bordeaux; today they have many other choices that are often more attractive—both to their tastes and their budgets.
Thus, a number of mea- sures have been introduced that Bordeaux hopes will help restore its fortunes. Regulatory reforms adopted in , falling into line with European Union rules, now allow producers to incorporate up to 15 percent of wine from a different year and still qualify for vintage status.
However, this is not certain. See also Auction Houses; Futures. Dewey Markham, Jr. Further Reading Bordeaux Wine Bureau. Brook, Stephen. Bordeaux: People, Power and Politics. Faith, Nicholas. The Winemasters of Bordeaux. London: Carlton Books, Brand loyalty is demonstrated when consumers are willing to pay more or search harder for a particular product than for any other because of the perception of its superior quality and value relative to all competing brands. Wine brands represent a particular subset of consumer goods brands, and like brands in general, there is a variety of different types of brands.
At the other end are luxury brands, which compete on the basis of reputation, name recognition, and a perception of exclusivity and are able to command higher, sometimes much higher, prices. In theory, quality improves as one moves along the continuum from commodity to luxury brands, although it is really the perception of quality which, up to a point, may be attained through the higher price itself that is more crucial.
Many wines—the vast majority, by volume—are commodity brands. Another implied promise of a brand is availability; within reason, consumers expect a major brand always to be available when they want to buy it. Luxury brands command a high price, but they are not always produced in small quantities.
Cult and niche brands, however, are typically small. Scream- ing Eagle, a cult Cabernet Sauvignon from the Napa Valley, offers only about cases a year. Because of this, many producers who follow this brand strategy have chosen to promote their terroir, their history, and their own uniqueness as a point of differentiation. For commodity brands, the twin goals of consistency and availability require a different strategy.
The primary focus is usually on sourcing of grapes. With so many sour- ces from which to choose, it is quite possible to produce a dependable wine year after year even though the place of origin and perhaps even the grape varieties used differ every time.
Large brands typically have winemaking teams rather than individual winemakers, again helping to ensure a continuity of style. Many consumers at this level do not stay with a product very long before moving on to the next big thing. Savvy brand mar- keters know that they can never stop investing in innovation in their brands.
Like so many other aspects of the business world, brands are subject to a life cycle. Whether it is an internal department or an agency hired to take care of promo- tion, major brands need a marketing team to help plant the seed in the minds of the public that the brand is desirable.
This may be accomplished through advertis- ing, special events, attractive labels, wine education activities, product place- ments, or other means. If the job is done right, consumers will be willing to try a whole new line of products—or extension—launched by their favorite brands, based solely on the brand name.
Mass-market brands may compete largely on a price basis, using economies of scale and aggressive distribution and retail strategies to be the lowest priced and most prominent wine. The largest brand in the United States, Franzia, sold One exception is in sparkling wine, which has higher costs to begin with and also has a built-in reputation for luxury and festivity that validates a higher price. Further Reading Aaker, David A. Building Strong Brands. New York: Free Press, Davis, Scott M.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Ries, Al, and Laura Ries. New York: HarperBusiness, Per-capita wine consumption in Brazil is currently quite low, at about three lit- ers per adult a quarter that of the United States , which can be attributed to the combination of widespread poverty and the typical reduced interest in wine in tropical climates.
Brazilian wine consumption in totaled Brazilians have a particular taste for vermouth, which comprises more than 5 percent of sales.
Brazil is also a fairly substantial producer of wine, the third largest in South America and among the top 15 in the world. Not surprisingly, winegrowing in Brazil began not long after the beginning of colonization by Portugal in the sixteenth century. Major European varieties were intro- duced by immigrants in the twentieth century, especially from Italy. Native American varieties and hybrids still predominate, but several international varieties are grown, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Malbec, Merlot, Riesling, and Syrah, along with Trebbiano, Pinotage, Tannat, and for sparkling wine, Prosecco.
The largest winery, the Aurora cooperative, produces about a quarter of production. Brazil has made strides in exports. It was the source for the Marcus James brand in the s and s until the demand outstripped production capacity. Wines from Brazil. Historically, it was the English love of wine, and the lack of suitable conditions for producing wine in the British Isles, that spurred the development of the international wine trade and made London its hub. If the English had been less interested in drinking wine or if the British Empire had not been the dominant force that it was, the center of the international commerce in wine would eventually have situated itself in Amsterdam or Paris or perhaps later New York.
The United Kingdom is the seventh largest wine-consuming country at million nine-liter cases mc in British per-capita consumption, Two-thirds of Britons at least occasionally drink wine. While the image of the upper-crust British wine connoisseur with huge stacks of old Bordeaux in the cellar of the manor house still has some validity, the aver- age British wine buyer is mad for value.
The retail sector accounts for 79 percent of wine sales in Britain, but only 54 percent of revenues due to the low prices. Of this, supermarket sales dwarf those of traditional wine retailers by a factor of six to one. Supermarkets once relied greatly on their own-label wines to keep the prices low, but their clout in the trade now allows them the leverage to drive hard bargains with the big brands as well. Wine being shipped to the United Kingdom must pass through an importer, often referred to as an agent.
Because the tiers can overlap in this relatively free system, the importer may be an off-license retailer; it may also be a wholesaler, who usually sells to the on-trade restaurants, bars, and the hospitality industry , or a third party who simply facilitates the passage from supplier to retailer for a fee.
Wine from outside the European Union faces a small additional tariff. Supermarkets and independent grocers capture three- quarters of the off-trade.
However, their ever-diminishing range of choices due to the cutthroat pricing that can be endured only by the major suppliers may be opening the door for a return of the wine specialist store. Some of these, such as Berry Bros. It is estimated that about 8 percent of the wine trade is conducted via e-commerce, mail order, and wine clubs. Half of the online trade is claimed by Tesco. Despite the British love of claret red Bordeaux , white wine outsells red wine in the United Kingdom 48 percent to 44 percent.
Chardonnay is the most popular variety, and Sauvignon Blanc has been second for many years, but may be displaced by Pinot Grigio, whose sales increased 74 percent in Among red varietally labeled wines, Syrah—more likely Shiraz from Australia or South Africa—is in the lead, followed by the ever-popular Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon; Pinot Noir is far behind, though gaining.
Alternative packaging is mak- ing inroads, with bag-in-box wine now up to 10 percent of sales. The amount of wine made in Britain is negligible compared to the demand. In , about 3. The plus wineries, with less than 2, acres in production, make mostly white still and sparkling wine, primarily from hybrid grape varieties.
It is interesting to speculate how global climate change might change the British domestic wine industry, however; warmer temperatures could provide opportunities for substantially more produc- tion and greater use of vinifera varieties, if the disease problems caused by rain and humidity can be kept under control.
See also Colonial Era. Further Reading Decanter. Drinks Business. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Wine and Spirit Trade Association. It is now the fourth largest wine company in the United States, with sales of 22 million cases mc. Much of the production is sold as bulk wine or bottled for other labels, but the company also has some 30 brands of its own.
Bronco Wine bought a winery in Escalon, California, from Constellation in with the capacity to produce about 33 mc; it also owns a production facility in the Napa Valley and plans a bottling plant adjacent to it. The company is the larg- est vineyard owner in California, with more than 35, acres of vineyards, mostly in the Central Valley, although it also buys grapes and wine from all over the state.
See also Appellations. In the past, consumers were able to purchase bulk wine directly from winer- ies in their own containers, but time and the human condition have made this practice far less common.
Today, bulk wine is actively traded primarily between countries or regions and among wineries. The bulk wine industry is as old as wine itself. Some 3, years ago, the Greeks traded their wines throughout the ancient Mediterranean by ship inside sealed amphorae. During the colonial era, barrels of wine were shipped from European wine producers to colonies all over the world, as well as to such nonproducer coun- tries as England and Holland.
In modern times, bulk wines continue to be traded globally by ship, as well as by rail and trucks. Totes, using stainless steel and rubber bladders to protect the wine, are the modern replacement for barrels.
Temperature control is often employed when high heat may damage the wine, as when moving wine across country during summer or through the tropics. While some countries produce more wine than they can consume, others consume considerably more wine than they make.
Thus, importers, exporters, and various brokers and agents con- duct trade to match supply and demand through the international trade in wine. As time goes by, more and more wine is being shipped in bulk to bottlers in the country of distribution. The nations of northern Europe have long been the destination for wine from warmer climates to the south, and with the globalization of the wine industry, the network has spread to the farthest corners of the Earth in search of good- quality, low-price wines for everyday drinking.
The British, Dutch, and Scandina- vian markets are large importers of bulk wines, particularly from Chile and South Africa.
Germany and Russia are also big importers, but they tend to prefer sources closer to home—Italy and France in the case of Germany; Eastern Europe, especially Bulgaria and Belarus, for Russia. Australia, whose wine industry depends heavily on exports, has at least temporarily become an importer of bulk wine from Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and even the United States as its recent mea- sures to deal with a huge overproduction problem have left it undersupplied.
The bulk wine is being used for inexpensive domestic wines so that the top-quality fruit can continue to go into high-value exports.
The United States imported some 22 million gallons of bulk wine in —the equivalent of 9. More than half of this wine came from Australia, with Argentina and France also being large contributors; together, these three represented 93 per- cent of the U.
Other uses for bulk wine are the vinegar and distillation brandy, grappa, and industrial ethanol industries, which require wine as an input.
Nor is the bulk trade restricted to wine. Some grape juice enters the bulk market even before it becomes wine. Wineries can hold juice until after harvest to determine their exact needs and then either ferment and sell it or sell the juice outright to another processor for fermentation and blending. Also, some grapes are crushed and con- centrated to be used in wine and other products requiring the use of grape concentrate. There are many advantages for wineries entering into the bulk wine trade.
While many may initially use the bulk wine market for disposing of excess or mediocre inventory, the vast majority of bulk wine traded around the globe is intended for and utilized by big brands. In fact, without the bulk wine trade, brands as we think of them—wines known for their consistent style and price year in and year out—could not exist.
A winery that wants to expand without waiting for vineyards to develop or without needing to input thousands of dollars in capital expenditures can do so with very little effort. As the wine industry embraces globalization, the bulk wine trade will play a critical role in helping emergent wine producers, such as China, to develop strong business models. These wines remain the classic benchmarks for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, despite competi- tion from many other countries. The three most important appellations in sales volume are red and white Bourgogne 1.
Great Britain is by far the largest export market by volume, followed by the United States, although the two countries account for a similar value. The Catholic Church succeeded the Roman Empire, and religious orders actively cultivated and expanded vineyards.
They also took up residence in Chablis at the Abbey of Pontigny in Monks took cuttings, studied vines, and tasted wines from different vineyards, identifying unique traits from certain parcels and thereby advancing the cru concept that is integral to modern French appellations. The French Revolution — led to the dissolution of large estates belonging to the aristocracy and the Church, and the Napoleonic Code dictated that land be divided equally among all heirs.
Consequently, one vineyard was often divided among many individual proprietors. Fragmented holdings within a total of appellations make it challenging to comprehend and to market Burgundy wines. Industry Structure.
There are more than 4, individual wine estates or domaines in Burgundy; a third of them bottle the wine from their holdings. Direct sales by estates comprise 30 percent of the total, a share that has grown over the last 30 years. Chablis is an island far removed from the rest of Burgundy, with 11, acres under vine. The grape for Chablis is Chardonnay, grown on slopes of clay and marls over limestone. The Chablis name—like that of Burgundy itself—has been widely abused in other countries, appearing on labels of wines that have nothing in common with authentic Chablis.
The variations of limestones and clays are partly responsible for a mosaic of vineyard parcels and, it is argued, terroir charac- teristics.
The Chalonnais is the least known subregion due in part to its limited output. The annual production of More than a third is exported to leading markets such as Japan, the United States, Germany, and the British market. Beaujolais is divided into three categories: the 10 crus, which are marketed under their individual names for example, Fleurie or Brouilly and account for one-fourth of production; Beaujolais- Villages; and basic Beaujolais, accounting for half of production.
A large share of the annual harvest is sold as Beaujolais Nouveau, which is fer- mented by a special technique carbonic maceration to obtain a grapey, soft red wine to be drunk young. Released each year just after the harvest, on the third Thursday of November, Nouveau became a modern marketing phenomenon—and a liability; the image of Nouveau has tarnished Beaujo- lais as a whole, exacerbated by overproduction and quality concerns.
Total exports have declined by one-third since the late s. This has led to mandatory distillation of unwanted wine and economic hardship for growers. There are four main appellations: Rully, Mercurey, and Givry, producing both whites and reds, and Montagny, solely white. Chardonnay dominates, with much smaller amounts of Gamay and Pinot Noir. This subregion also produces St. Burgundy is faced with commercial competition from the New World, particularly in Chardonnay.
Climate change could have profound effects. If temperatures continue to rise, Burgundy may no longer be within the range of optimal maturity for Pinot Noir, which would threaten the assumptions on which appellation rules are founded and could lead to such fundamental changes as the introduction of new grape vari- eties and wine styles.
Roger C. Further Reading Burgundy Wines. Coates, Clive. Norman, Remington. The Great Domaines of Burgundy. New York: Henry Holt, The Wines and Vineyards of France. New York: Penguin, It is probably the source or at least an ingredient in more great red wines of the world than any other variety, most notably the wines of Bordeaux and many top wines from California, Italy, Australia, and elsewhere.
Black fruit blackberries, black currants, boysenberries, black cherries makes up the core, surrounded by accents that may be more origin dependent eucalyptus, leather, tar, chocolate, bell pepper. The wines are usually quite tannic when young, with fairly high alcohol content. The acidity level, as usual, varies with the climate, decreasing for hotter regions. A similar amount is planted outside Bordeaux in the rest of France, mainly in the Languedoc.
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the latest-ripening varieties and therefore thrives in places with warm to hot climates and long growing seasons. In Bordeaux, it is the last of the grapes harvested, and in some years, ripening the Cabernet Sauvignon can be a challenge which is part of the reason the Bordelais hedge their bets with plenty of early-ripening Merlot. Even in the Old World, the lure of Cabernet Sauvignon is strong.
In the United States, Cabernet Sauvignon covers at least 85, acres, including 76, in California and 6, in Washington. The Napa Valley is renowned for its Cabernet and is considered the New World benchmark for this variety. The major- ity of the most expensive U. According to Adams Wine Handbook , Cabernet was the third most purchased table wine variety in the United States in after Chardonnay and Merlot , with a 12 percent market share, but it climbed past Merlot in Varietally labeled Cabernet sales amounted to See also Cult Wines; Ratings and Scores.
Written by a host of wine professionals, this is the most up-to-date source to understand what goes into the enjoyment of a glass of wine.
An appendix with industry data, sidebars, and a selected bibliography complement the A-Z entries. Every day we make purchasing decisions that express our sense of belonging, our commitments to the environment and our systems of belief. We often choose to buy things, not necessarily because we need them, but because we believe that these things will help us express who we are — in our own eyes and in the eyes of others.
Whether we like it or not, consumerism is the prevalent ideology of our time. Led by Gjoko Muratovski, Consumer Culture is the ideal starting point for an investigation into the social construction of the global economy. Author : Noubar J. Vineyard pest management is a dynamic and evolving field, and the contributed chapters provide insights into arthropods that limit this important crop and its products. Written by international experts from the major grape-growing regions, it provides a global overview of arthropods affecting vines and the novel strategies being used to prevent economic losses, including invasive pests affecting viticulture.
The book contains reviews of the theoretical basis of integrated pest management, multiple chapters on biological control, current status of chemical control, as well as in-depth and well-illustrated reviews of the major arthropod pests affecting grape production and how they are being managed worldwide. This text will serve as a primary resource for applied entomologists, students, growers, and consultants with interests at the intersection of viticulture and applied entomology.
Author : Charles L.
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WebFor U.S. domestic statistics especially, data for comparison and analy-sis came from Adams Wine Handbook , the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, the California . WebWine itself is an art, as is knowing how to combine it well with food. In this respect, the flavors of wine and food should reinforce each other, and not counteract each other. In . WebThe Wine Encyclopedia PDF – Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Vinska Enciklopedija.
Wine encyclopedia pdf free download.The New Sotheby’s Wine Encyclopedia
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There are nearly 3, commercial vineyards in the United States with at least one winery in all 50 states. Current US laws allow American made wines to be labeled as “American Burgundy” or “California Champagne”, even though these names are protected in Europe. US laws only restrict usage to include the qualifying area of origin to go with these semi-generic names. European Union officials have been working with their US counterparts through World Trade Organization negotiations to eliminate the use of these semi-generic names.
Prior to the early s, all grapes had to be from the vintage year. All labels must list the alcohol content based on percentage by volume. American wine labels are also required to list if they contain sulfites and carry the Surgeon General’s warning about alcohol consumption.
Three-tier distribution Following the repeal of Prohibition, the federal government allowed each state to regulate the production and sale of alcohol in their own state.
For the majority of states this lead to the development of a three-tier distribution system between the producer, wholesaler and consumer. Depending on the state there are some exceptions, with wineries allowed to sell directly to consumers on site at the winery. Some states allow interstate sales through e-commerce. In the case of Granholm v.
Heald, the Supreme Court of the United States struck down state laws banning interstate shipments but allowing in-state sales. The outcome of the Supreme Court decision was that states could decide to allow out of states wine sales along with in state sales or ban both altogether.
Largest Producers As of The largest producers of American wine. Constellation Brands – With foreign wine holdings Constellation is the largest producer in the world and includes Robert Mondavi Winery and Columbia Winery in its portfolio 3. Vineyards in Agrelo, Mendoza. Argentine wine, as with some aspects of Argentine cuisine, has its roots in Spain.
During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Juan Cedrn or Cidrn brought the first vine cuttings to Santiago del Estero in , and the cultivation of the grape and wine production stretched first to neighbouring regions, and then to other parts of the country. However, the desire to increase exports fueled significant advances in quality.
Argentine wines started being exported during the s, and are currently growing in popularity. The devaluation of the Argentine peso in , following the economic collapse, further fueled the industry as production costs decreased and tourism significantly increased, giving way to a whole new concept of wine tourism in Argentina.
The past years have seen the birth of numerous touristfriendly wineries with free tours and tastings. Some wineries even provide accommodations such as is the case of Salentein or Tapiz for tourists interested in staying in boutique hotels specifically oriented towards wine-tourism. The Mendoza Province is now one of Argentina’s top tourist destinations and the one which has grown the most in the past years. Argentina is the largest wine producer in South America and the 5th largest in the world, with over 1, million liters , and the 13th largest exporter in the world million USD in Argentina probably produces the best Malbec.
Ironically, in the s, Argentina almost gave up on the grape through government vine pull schemes. Due to the high altitude and low humidity of the main wine producing regions, Argentine vineyards rarely face the problems of insects, fungi, moulds and other diseases that affect grapes in other countries.
This permits cultivating with little or no pesticides, allowing even organic wines to be easily produced. Regions The most important wine regions of the country are located in the provinces of Mendoza and San Juan Cuyo region , and La Rioja.
Salta, Catamarca and Ro Negro are also wine producing regions. Grapes There are many different varieties of grapes cultivated in Argentina, reflecting her many immigrant groups.
The French brought Auxerrois, which became known as Malbec, which makes most of Argentina’s best known wines. The Italians brought vines that they called Bonarda, although Argentine Bonarda appears to be the Corbeau of Savoie, also known as Charbono in California, which may be related to Dolcetto. It has nothing in common with the light fruity wines made from Bonarda Piemontese in Piedmont.
It is a member of the Malvasia group that makes aromatic white wines. It has recently been grown in Spain. Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay and other international favourites are becoming more widely planted, but some varieties are cultivated characteristically in certain areas. Australian wine The Australian wine industry is the fourth-largest exporter in the world, exporting over million litres a year to a large international export market that includes “old world” wine-producing countries such as France, Italy and Spain.
There is also a significant domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over million litres of wine per year. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy through production, employment, export and tourism. An attempt at wine making from these first vines failed, but with perseverance, other settlers managed to successfully cultivate vines for winemaking, and Australian made wine was available for sale domestically by the s.
In Gregory Blaxland became the first person to export Australian wine, and was the first winemaker to win an overseas award. In vineyards were established in the Hunter Valley. In James Bushby returned from France and Spain with a serious selection of grape varieties including most classic French grapes and a good selection of grapes for fortified wine production.
Wine from the Adelaide Hills was sent to Queen Victoria in , but there is no evidence that she placed an order as a result. The production and quality of Australian wine was much improved by the arrival of free settlers from various parts of Europe, who used their skills and knowledge to establish some of Australia’s premier wine regions.
For example, emigrants from Prussia in the mid s were important in establishing South Australia’s Barossa Valley as a winemaking region. Early Australian winemakers faced many difficulties, particularly due to the unfamiliar Australian climate. However they eventually achieved considerable success. A Victorian Syrah also called Shiraz competing in the Paris Exhibition was likened to Chteau Margaux and “its taste completed its trinity of perfection.
That was all before the destructive effects on the industry of the phylloxera epidemic. In the decades following the devastation caused by phylloxera until the late s, Australian wine production consisted largely, but not exclusively, of sweet and fortified wines.
Since then, Australia has rapidly become a world leader in both the quantity and quality of wines it produces. For example, Australian wine exports to the US rose from , cases in to 20,, cases in and in it exported more wine than France to the UK for the first time in history. The industry has also suffered hard times in the last 20 years. In the late s, governments sponsored growers to pull out their vines to overcome a glut of winegrapes. Low grape prices in and have led to calls for another sponsored vine pull.
Cleanskin wines were introduced into Australia during the early ‘s as a means to combat oversupply and poor sales. Consumption of wine in Australia has greatly increased since the introduction of cleanskins and many cleanskin varieties are now sold as cheaply as many beers. In recent years organic and biodynamic wines have been increasing in popularity, following a worldwide trend. In Australia hosted the First International Biodynamic Wine Forum which brought together biodynamic wine producers from around the globe.
Despite the overproduction of grapes many organic and biodynamic growers have enjoyed continuing demand thanks to the premium prices winemakers can charge for their organic and biodynamic products, particularly in the European market.
The country has no native grapes, and Vitis vinifera varieties were introduced from Europe and South Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some varieties have been bred by Australian viticulturalists, for example Cienna and Tarrango.
Although Syrah was originally called Shiraz in Australia and Syrah elsewhere, its dramatic commercial success has led many Syrah producers around the world to label their wine “Shiraz”. About different grape varieties are used by commercial winemakers in Australia. Over recent years many winemakers have begun exploring so called “alternative varieties” other than those listed above.
Wines from many other varieties are being produced. Australian winemaking results have been impressive and it has established benchmarks for a number of varietals, such as Chardonnay and Shiraz. Moreover, Australians have innovated in canopy management and other viticultural techniques and in wine-making, and they have a general attitude toward their work that sets them apart from producers in Europe.
Australian wine-makers travel the wine world as highly skilled seasonal workers, relocating to the northern hemisphere during the off-season at home.
Australia’s most famous wine is Penfolds Grange. The great vintage was submitted to competitions beginning in and over the years has won more than 50 gold medals. The vintage was named ‘Red Wine of the Year’ by the Wine Spectator magazine in , which later rated the vintage 99 points out of a possible The influential wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr. Australia has almost wine producers, most of whom are small winery operations. However, the market is dominated by a small number of major wine companies.
After several phases of consolidation, the largest Australian wine company by sales of branded wine was Foster’s Group in and then in and , Hardy Wine Company.
Hardys, part of the world’s biggest wine company Constellation Brands, had the largest vineyard area and the largest winegrape intake in the years – A list of the major wine companies in Australia and their associated wineries can be found below. Major wine regions Zones used for labeling the source of Australian wine The information included on wine labels is strictly regulated.
One aspect of this is that the label must not make any false or misleading statements about the source of the grapes. Many names called geographic indications are protected. These are divided into “South Eastern Australia”, the state names, zones shown in the map , regions, and subregions. In general, the higher-value premium wines are made from smaller and cooler-climate regions.
Some well-known regions are listed below:. In recent years, the Tasmanian wine industry has emerged as a producer of high quality wines. In particular, the Tamar Valley has developed a reputation for its Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, which are well suited to the cooler Tasmanian climate. Queensland is also developing a wine industry with over vineyards registered in the state.
Some notable wines are produced in the high-altitude Granite Belt region in the state’s extreme south, production is centered on the towns of Stanthorpe and Ballandean.
Wine producing regions in Bulgaria Grape growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the times of the Thracians. Wine is, together with beer and grape rakia, one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in the country. Viticultural regions A government decree of 13 July officially divided Bulgaria into five distinct viticultural regions. The climate of the area is. It is divided into an eastern and western subregion, with styles such as Muscatel, Riesling, Rkatsiteli, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot dominating.
The region mostly produces dry and off-dry white wine and less red wine. The region includes the Sungurlare Valley, famous for its wine from the Red Misket grape variety. Thracian Valley Southern Region The temperate continental climate in the area and the favourable distribution of precipitation are good premises for the developed red wine growing in the lowlands of Upper Thrace. The region includes the central part of the Valley, as well as parts of the Sakar mountain.
The Balkan Mountains serve to block the cold winds blowing from the plains of Russia, and the region to the south of the Balkans, the valley drained by the Maritsa River, enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. Struma River Valley Southwestern Region The region includes the southwestern parts of Bulgaria, the valley of the river Struma in the historical region of Macedonia.
The area is small in size, but is climatically very distinct and characteristic, owing to the strong Mediterranean influence from the south.
The local style Shiroka melnishka loza taking its name from Melnik , as well as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are cultivated. Areas of grape cultivation in Canada While most of Canada is too cold for grape growing, Canadian wine is produced in Southern Ontario and southern British Columbia. There are small scale productions of grapes and wine in southern Quebec and Nova Scotia. The Canadian wine industry also vinifies imported grapes and juice.
Icewine, which can be produced reliably in most Canadian wine regions, is the most recognized product on an international basis. Canada produced Early settlers tried to cultivate Vitis vinifera grapes from Europe with limited success. They found it necessary to focus on the native species of Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia along with various hybrids.
However, the market was limited for such wines because of their peculiar taste, which is often called “foxy. For a period of time in the s the export of these affordable wines to England made Ontario one of the largest wine exporters in North America. During the first half of the twentieth century, the temperance movement and later consumer demand for fortified and sweet wines, hampered the development of a quality table wine industry. However, during the s consumer demand shifted from sweet and fortified wines to drier and lower alcohol table wines.
At the same time, there were. After the repeal of alcohol prohibition in Canada in , provinces strictly limited the number of licenses to produce wine. The nearly year moratorium on issuing new winery licenses was finally dropped in During the same decade, demonstration planting began to show that Vitis vinifera could be successfully grown in Canada. Others found that high quality wines could be produced if Vitis vinifera vines were grown with reduced yields, new trellising techniques, and appropriate canopy management.
In , three important events occurred. During the s, Canadian vintners continued to demonstrate that fine grape varieties in cooler growing conditions could potentially possess complex flavours, delicate yet persistent aromas, tightly focused structure and longer ageing potential than their counterparts in warmer growing regions of the world.
While there are many small Canadian wineries, the domestic wine market has long been dominated by two companies, Vincor International and Andres Wines. In , Vincor International, which had grown aggessively in previous years by acquiring wineries in California, Australia and New Zealand, was itself acquired by Constellation Brands, a U.
At the St. Catharines, Ontario. The fifty Canadian judges were wine writers for Canadian publications, wine educators and students at Brock University, Ontario vintners, and included three certified wine judges. The tasting ranked five Canadian wines above four wines from Bordeaux. Despite the awards, not all Canadian wine is VQA. Some of the wine industry’s.
Exports Some Canadian wine is exported. The region has a long viticultural history for a New World wine region dating to the 16th century when the Spanish conquistadores brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the region. In the midth century, French wine varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were introduced. In the early s, a renaissance began with the introduction of stainless steel fermentation tanks and the use of oak barrels for aging.
Wine exports grew very quickly as quality wine production increased. The number of wineries has grown from 12 in to over 70 in Chile is now the fourth largest exporter of wines to the United States. The climate has been described as midway between that of California and France. The most common grapes are Cabernet. Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenre. So far Chile has remained free of phylloxera louse which means that the country’s grapevines do not need to be grafted.
Pedro Lira’s painting of the founding of Santiago by conquistadors. As the Spanish conquered the land they brought grapevines with them. European Vitis vinifera vines were brought to Chile by Spanish conquistadors and missionaries in the 16th century around Local legend states that the conquistador Francisco de Aguirre himself planted the first vines. The vines most likely came from established Spanish vineyards planted in Peru which included the “common black grape”, as it was known, that Hernn Corts brought to Mexico in This grape variety would become the ancestor of the widely planted Pais grape that would be the most widely planted Chilean grape till the 21st century.
Jesuit priest cultivated these early vineyards, using the wine for the celebration of the Eucharist. By the late 16th century, the early Chilean historian Alonso de Ovalle described widespread plantings of “the common black grape”, Muscatel, Torontel, Albilho and Mollar.
During the Spanish rule, vineyards were restricted in production with the stipulation that the Chilean should purchase the bulk of their wines directly from Spain itself. For the most part the Chileans ignored these restrictions, preferring their domestic production to the oxidized and vinegary wines that didn’t fare well during the long voyages from Spain. They were even so bold as to start exporting some of their wines to neighboring Peru with one such export shipment being captured at sea by the English privateer Francis Drake.
When Spain heard of the event rather than being outraged at Drake, an indictment was sent back to Chile with the order to uproot most of their vineyards. This order, too, was mostly ignored. In the 18th century, Chile was known mostly for its sweet wines made from the Pais and Muscatel grapes.
To achieve a high level of sweetness the wines were often boiled which concentrated the grape must. The 19th century wine writer Andr Julien was not as impressed, comparing Chilean wines to a “potion of rhubarb and senna”.
Chilean Sauvignon blanc Despite being politically linked to Spain, Chile’s wine history has been most profoundly influenced by French, particularly Bordeaux, winemaking.
Prior to the phylloxera epidemic, wealthy Chilean landowners were influenced by their visits to France and began importing French vines to plant. In Don Maximo Errazuriz founded the first winery dedicated to international varieties. He hired a French oenologist to oversee his vineyard planting.
Errzuriz saw potential in Chile and even experimented with the German wine grape Riesling. In events that parallel those of the Rioja wine region, the entrance of phylloxera into the French wine world turned into a positive event for the Chilean wine industry.
With vineyards in ruin, many French winemakers traveled to South America, bringing their experience and techniques with them. Political instability in the 20th century, coupled with bureaucratic regulations and high taxes tempered the growth of the Chilean wine industry.
Prior to the s, the vast majority of Chilean wine was considered low quality and mostly consumed domestically. As awareness of Chile’s favorable growing conditions for viticulture increased so did foreign investment in Chilean wineries. This period saw many technical advances in winemaking as Chile earned a reputation for reasonably priced premium quality wines.
Chile began to export extensively, becoming the third leading exporter, after France and Italy, into the United States by the turn of the 21st century. It has since dropped to fourth in the US, being surpassed by Australia, but focus has switched to developing exports in the world’s other major wine markets like the United Kingdom and Japan.
Chile’s topography with the location of most of Chile’s wine regions highlighted. Chile is a long, narrow country that is geographically and climatically dominated by the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile’s vineyards are found along an mile stretch of land from Atacama Region to the Bio-Bio Region in the south. The climate is varied with the northern regions being very hot and dry compared to the cooler, wetter regions in the south. In the Valle Central around Santiago, the climate is dry with an average of 15 inches 38 centimeters of rain and little to risk of springtime frost.
This cool drop in temperature is vital in maintaining the grapes’ acidity levels. Most of Chile’s premium wine regions are dependent on irrigation to sustain vineyards, getting the necessary water from melting snow caps in the Andes. In the developing wine regions along the Coastal Ranges and in the far south, there is not a lack in needed rainfall but vineyards owners have to deal with other factors such as the Humboldt Current from the Pacific which can bathe a vineyard with a blanket of cool air.
For the rest of Chile’s wine regions, the Coastal Ranges serve a buffer from the current and also acts as a rain shadow. The vineyards in these regions are planted on the valley plains of the Andes foothills along a major river such as the Maipo, Rapel and Maule Rivers. The vineyards of Chile fall between the latitudes of 32 and 38 s which, in the Northern Hemisphere would be the equivalent of southern Spain and North Africa.
However the climate in Chile’s wine regions is much more temperate than those regions, comparing more closely to California and Bordeaux. Overall, it is classified as a Mediterranean climate with average summer temperatures of F C and potential highs 86 F 30 C.
Chile’s major wine regions In December , the Republic of Chile defined the following viticultural regionsAtacama, within the Atacama region III administrative region. Within it are two subregions, the Copiap Valley and the Huasco Valley, both of which are coterminous with the provinces of the same names. The region is known primarily for its Pisco production.
Atacama is also an important source of table grapes. Coquimbo, within the Coquimbo Region IV administrative region. All subregions are coterminous with the provinces of the same names. Like the Atacama this region is primarily known for Pisco and table grapes. Aconcagua, within the Valparaiso Region V administrative region.
It includes two subregions, the Valley of Aconcagua and the Valley of Casablanca. The Aconcagua Valley is coterminous with the province of that name. The Casablanca Valley is coterminous with the comuna of that name. The Panquehue commune is also gradually developing a reputation for high quality wine production. Casablanca is one of Chile’s cooler wine region and is often compared to the Californian wine region of Carneros and grows similar grape varietals like Chardonnay and Pinot noir.
Casablanca’s growing seasons last up to a month longer than other regions, typically harvesting in April. The northern region of Aconcagua is Chile’s warmest wine region and is primarily planted with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
The soil of this region is composed mainly of alluvial deposits left over from ancient river beds. This is Chile’s most productive and internationally known wine region, due in large part to its close proximately to the country’s capital Santiago. It is located directly across the Andes’ from Argentina’s most well known wine region Mendoza Province.
The Maipo Valley is the most widely cultivated valley and is known for its Cabernet Sauvignon. The Rapel wine region in the Colchagua Province is also known for it Cabernet. Curic has. The Maule Valley still has large plantings of the local Pais but is gradually being planted with better red wine varieties. The soil of Maipo Valley is noted for it high salinity steaming from irrigation from the Maipo river and low potassium level which has some impact on the grapevines. Vineyards in the Maule also suffer from low potassium as well as deficient nitrogen levels.
Advances in viticultural techniques have helped vineyards in these regions compensate for some of these effects. The region is primarily known for its mass produce Pais box and jug wines though Concha y Toro Winery has experimented with Gewrztraminer from this region.
The southern regions have more rainfall, lower average temperature and fewer hours of sunlight than the northern wine regions. Many of Chile’s vineyards are found on flat land within the foothills of the Andes. Chile’s natural boundaries Pacific Ocean, Andes Mountain, Atacama Desert to the north and Antarctica to the south has left it relatively isolated from other parts of the world and has served to be beneficial in keeping the phylloxera louse at bay.
Because of this many Chilean vineyards do not have to graft their rootstock and incur that added cost of planting. Chilean wineries have stated that this “purity” of their vines is a positive element that can be tasted in the wine but most wine experts agree that the most apparent benefit is the financial aspect. The one wine region that is the exception to this freedom from grafting is Casablanca whose vines are susceptible to attack by nematodes. While phylloxera is not a problem, winemakers do have to worry about other grape diseases and hazards such as downy mildew, which was spread easily by El Nio influences and severely affected the vintages.
Powdery mildew and verticillium wilt can also cause trouble. There is not much vintage variation due to the reliability of favorable weather with little risk of spring time frost or harvest time rains. The main exception, again, is Casablanca due in part to its closer proximately to the Pacific.
For the Chilean wine regions in the Valle Central, the Andes and Coastal Ranges create a rain shadow affect which traps the. At night, cool air comes into the area from the Andes which dramatically drops the temperature. This help maintain high levels of acidity to go with the ripe fruit that grapes develop with the long hours of uninterrupted sunshine that they get during the day.
The result is a unique profile of flavonoids in the wine which some Chilean wineries claim make Chilean wines higher in resveratrol and antioxidants. Harvest typically begins at the end of February for varieties like Chardonnay with some red wine varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon being picked in April and Carmenre sometimes staying on the vine into May. The Andes also provide a ready source of irrigation which was historically done in flood plain style.
Chilean vineyard owners would dig canals throughout their vineyards and then flood the entire surface area with water allowing some to seep into the ground and the run off to be funnel away through the canals. This encouraged excessive irrigation and high yields which had a negative effect on quality. The soil composition of Chile’s vineyards varies from the clay dominated landscapes of Colchagua, which is thusly heavily planted with the clay-loving Merlot, to the mixture of loam, limestone and sand found in other regions.
In the southern Rapel and parts of Maule, tuffeau soil is present with volcanic soil being found in parts of Curico and Bio-Bio. Old barrels made of rauli wood outside of Concha y Toro. Chile has benefited from an influx of foreign investment and winemaking talent that begin in the late 20th century. Flying winemakers introduced new technology and styles that helped Chilean wineries produce more international recognized wine styles.
One such improvement was the use of oak. Historically Chilean winemakers had aged their wines in barrels made from rauli beechwood which imparted to the wine a unique taste. Gradually the wineries began to convert to French and American oak or stainless steel tanks for aging. Financial investment manifested in the form of European and American winemakers opening up their own wineries or collaborating with existing Chilean wineries to produce new brands.
These include Wine laws Chile’s wine laws are more similar to the US appellation system than to France’s Appellation d’origine contrle that most of Europe has based their wine laws on. Chile’s system went into effect in and established the boundaries of the countries wine regions and established regulations for wine labels. There are no restrictions of grape varieties, viticultural practices or winemaking techniques.
Similar to the United States, the term Reserve has no legal definition or meaning. Carmnre Over twenty grape varieties are grown in Chile, mainly a mixture of Spanish and French varieties, but many wineries are increasing experimentation in higher numbers. For most of Chile’s history, Pais was the most widely planted grape only recently getting passed by Cabernet Sauvignon. Chilean winemakers have been developing a distinct style for their Cabernet Sauvignon, producing an easy drinking wine with soft tannins and flavors of mint, black currant, olives and smoke.
The country’s Chardonnays are less distinctive, following more the stereotypical New World style. While sparkling wines have been made since , they have not yet established a significant place in Chile’s wine portfolio. The wines lack many of the characteristics and typicity of those grapes. Ampelographers began to study the vines and found that what was considered Merlot was actually the ancient Bordeaux wine grape Carmnre that was thought to be extinct.
In response to these discoveries several Chilean wineries began to import true Merlot and Sauvignon blanc cuttings to where most bottle of wines labeled Merlot and Sauvignon blanc from vintages in the 21st century are very likely to truly be those varieties. In some international competitions, Chilean wines have ranked very highly. For example, in the Berlin Wine Tasting of , 36 European experts blind tasted wines from two vintages each of eight top wines from France, Italy and Chile.
The first and second place wines were two Cabernet-based reds from Chile: Viedo Chadwick and Sena In the Tokyo Wine Tasting of , Chilean wines won four of the top five rankings. Two bottles of Chinese grape wine Wine in China ; pinyin: pto ji are wines that are produced in China. Grape wine has a long history in China, along with other traditional wines which would be discussed in the article Chinese wine. Beginning in , French and other Western wines began to rise in prominence in the Chinese market, both in the mainland China and in Taiwan.
French-taught Chinese winemakers introduced the wine to a market dominated mostly by beer, and have quickly expanded in proportion such that China is set to be the largest market of wine soon, with its immense population. History The history of Chinese grape wine dates back more than 4, years: in , the joint Sino-USA archaeology team including archaeologists from the Archaeology Research Institute of Shandong University and American archaeologists under the leadership of Professor Fang Hui investigated the two archaeological sites 20 km to the northeast of Rizhao, and discovered the remnants of a variety of alcoholic beverages including grape wine, rice wine, mead, and several mixed beverages of these wines.
Out of more. Remnants of grape seeds were also discovered. However, due to the inferior quality of Chinese grapes, for centuries, grape wine was not as prominent as other alcoholic beverages until Han Dynasty, following Zhang Qian’s exploration of the country’s western region in the 2nd century BCE, when high quality grapes were finally introduced into China.
Thus, grape wine is a traditional Chinese alcoholic beverage, along with other traditional wines made from sorghum, millet, rice, and fruits such as lychee or ume. Modern revival and French wine in China French wine was the first foreign wine imported into China. Over the years, the company developed over 90 brands of alcoholic beverages, and its products won numerous awards both domestically and abroad.
However, most of its products were exported abroad in the first two decades due to the low income of the local population, and it was not until after the year when the economic boom finally allowed the domestic population to have the disposable income needed to support the domestic market; this relatively recent occurrence coincided with the increased popularity of French wine in China.
Also, as globalization has brought China onto the international economic scene, so to has its winemaking industry come onto the international wine scene. China has a long tradition of the fermentation and distillation of Chinese wine, including all alcoholic beverages and not necessarily grape wine, but is one of the most recent participants in the globalization of wine that started years ago in Paris, when several countries such as Canada realized that they may be able to produce wines as good as most French wine.
Quite recently, Chinese grape wine has begun appearing on shelves in California and in Western Canada. While some critics have treated these wines with the same type of disregard with which Chilean and Australian wines were once treated, others have recognized a new frontier with the potential to yield some interesting finds.
Others have simply taken notice that China is producing drinkable table wines comparable to wines from other countries. In , a U.
The company used a former Kendall Jackson winemaker to blend their wines for the western palate. It is located near the Tian Mountain range and overlooking the Zhungeer plain, the landform is located in a montane, plain and dessert step, containing the main rivers of Bentoutin and Santun Rivers. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
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